"Science is everything and everywhere". Monroe Science Educational Services offers affordable and practical programs that reinforce knowledge and skill sets that directly relate to your student's educational success through real-world, hands-on, inquiry-based field study trip activities. MSES collaborates with many of the local, state, and national science businesses and institutions to offer up close and personal experiences with "cutting-edge" science processes, topics and technology.
All MSES Programs are aligned with both National and State Science Standards. With a predominant focus on Earth, Life, & Physical Sciences, a multitude of specific science disciplines are embedded withing the scope of each individual program, examples include:
Atmosphere and Climate
Astronomy - is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe. Though much of the information about the Solar System is obtained trough direct observation, the information of further objects is collected through the spectral analysis of light; the electromagnetic spectrum.
Biology - examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution and classification of all living things. Five unifying principles form the foundation of modern biology: cell theory, evolution, gene theory, energy, and homeostasis. Traditionally, the specialized disciplines of biology are grouped by the type of organism being studied: botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; and microbiology, the study of microorganisms. These fields are further divided based on the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the fundamental chemistry of life, molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules, cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism; and ecology examines how various organisms interrelate with their environment.
Chemistry - is the science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions. It is a physical science for studies of various atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes. Modern chemistry evolved out of alchemy following the chemical revolution (1773). Disciplines within chemistry are traditionally grouped by the type of matter being studied or the kind of study. These include inorganic chemistry, the study of inorganic matter; organic chemistry, the study of organic matter; biochemistry, the study of substances found in biological organisms; physical chemistry, the energy related studies of chemical systems at macro, molecular and submolecular scales; analytical chemistry, the analysis of material samples to gain an understanding of their chemical composition and structure.
Geology - is the science and study of the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth materials, and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major academic discipline, and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments with reference to present-day climate change.
Hydrothermal Vent Ecology - Although life is very sparse at these depths, black smokers are the center of entire ecosystems. Sunlight is nonexistent, so many organisms — such as archaea and extremophiles — convert the heat, methane, and sulfur compounds provided by black smokers into energy through a process called chemosynthesis. More complex life forms like clams and tubeworms feed on these organisms. The organisms at the base of the food chain also deposit minerals into the base of the black smoker, therefore completing the life cycle. A species of phototrophic bacterium has been found living near a black smoker off the coast of Mexico at a depth of 2,500 m (8,200 ft). No sunlight penetrates that far into the waters. Instead, the bacteria, part of the Chlorobiaceae family, use the faint glow from the black smoker for photosynthesis. This is the first organism discovered in nature to use a light other than sunlight for photosynthesis.
Microbial Ecology - is the relationship of microorganisms with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life — Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria — as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. They are present in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from acidic lakes to the deepest ocean, and from frozen environments to hydrothermal vents.
Microbes, especially bacteria, often engage in symbiotic relationships (either positive or negative) with other organisms, and these relationships affect the ecosystem. One example of these fundamental symbioses are chloroplasts, which allow eukaryotes to conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are considered to be endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, a group of bacteria that are thought to be the origins of aerobic photosynthesis. Some theories state that this invention coincides with a major shift in the early earth's atmosphere, from a reducing atmosphere to an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Some theories go as far as saying that this shift in the balance of gasses might have triggered a global ice-age known as the Snowball Earth.
They are the backbone of all ecosystems, but even more so in the zones where light cannot approach and thus photosynthesis cannot be the basic means to collect energy. In such zones, chemosynthetic microbes provide energy and carbon to the other organisms. Other microbes are decomposers, with the ability to recycle nutrients from other organisms' waste poducts. These microbes play a vital role in biogeochemical cycles. The nitrogen cycle, the phosphorus cycle and the carbon cycle all depend on microorganisms in one way or another. For example, nitrogen which makes up 78% of the planet's atmosphere is "indigestible" for most organisms, and the flow of nitrogen into the biosphere depends on a microbial process called fixation. Due to the high level of horizontal gene transfer among microbial communities, microbial ecology is also of importance to studies of evolution.
Physics - examines basic concepts such as energy, force, and spacetime and all that derives from these, such as mass, charge, matter and its motion. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the world and universe behave. It's understanding often drives new technology.
MSES Programs are structured and aligned in accordance with the scientific discipline areas of on the United States Geologic Survey (USGS).
acid rain, air-sea interaction, atmospheric circulation, atmospheric deposition, climate change, desertification, droughts, global change, global warming, greenhouse effect, precipitation, storms, wind
bathymetry, biostratigraphy, bouguer anomaly, earth history, earth structure, Earth's core, Earth's crust, Earth's mantle, fossils, free-air anomaly, geologic history, geologic structure, gravity, igneous rocks, isostatic anomaly, land surface, lithostratigraphy, magnetic field, metamorphic rocks, rocks and deposits, sedimentary rocks, snow and ice cover, stratigraphy, unconsolidated deposits
Ecology and Environment
aquatic ecosystems, benthic ecosystems, biodiversity, biogeography, deserts, ecological competition, ecological processes, ecosystem diversity, ecosystem functions, ecosystems, environmental assessment, estuarine ecosystems, forests, freshwater ecosystems, grasslands, habitat alteration, habitats, island ecosystems, shrublands, tundras, wetlands
abandoned mines and quarries, contamination and pollution, deforestation, desertification, dredging, ground-water quality, health and disease, human impacts, industrial pollution, land use, land use change, marine water quality, mine drainage, mining hazards, nonpoint-source pollution, overfishing, overgrazing, pesticides and herbicides, pharmaceuticals, recreation, surface water quality, toxic radionuclides, toxic trace elements, waste treatment and disposal, water quality
Geographic Analysis and Mapping
administrative and political boundaries, aerial photography, cartography, geospatial analysis, maps and atlases, remote sensing, spatial analysis, topography
erosion, faulting, folding, geochemistry, land subsidence, plate tectonics, rock deformation, sedimentation, soil chemistry, water chemistry
glaciation, ground-water flow, ground-water level, hydrodynamics, hydrology, percolation, runoff, saltwater intrusion, scour, sediment transport, streamflow, water circulation, water cycle
algal blooms, droughts, dust storms, earthquake occurrences, earthquake preparedness, earthquake probabilities, earthquakes, fire control, fires, floods, hazards, hurricanes, ice storms, impact cratering, lahars, landslides, liquefaction, magnetic storms, storm surge, tsunamis, volcanic activity, volcanic eruption prediction, volcanic gas emission, volcanoes
coal resources, commercial fisheries, energy resources, fishery resources, forest resources, geothermal resources, inland fisheries, marine fisheries, mineral resources, mining and quarrying, natural gas resources, natural resource management, oil resources, placer deposit mining, resource exploration, resource extraction, soil resources, water resources, well drilling
Oceans and Coastlines
air-sea interaction, coastal ecosystems, coastal zones, marine ecosystems, marine fisheries, marine geology, marine geophysics, marine water quality, ocean characteristics, ocean circulation, ocean currents, ocean processes, ocean salinity, ocean temperature, ocean tides, ocean waves, oceanic lithosphere, paleoceanography, reef ecosystems, sea-floor characteristics, sea-level change
impact cratering, meteorites, planetary bodies, planetary sciences
Plants and Animals
animals, aquatic vegetation, capturing and trapping, carnivores, endangered species, extinction and extirpation, ferns, flowering plants, genetic diversity, herbivores, invasive species, invertebrates, liverworts and hornworts, migratory species, mosses, paleobotany, palynology, plant and animal testing, plants, pollinators, seasonal migration, species diversity, vegetation, vertebrates, wildlife, wildlife population management
Techniques and Methods
aerial photography, aeromagnetic surveying, aeroradiometric surveying, camera calibration, computational methods, core analysis, field methods, geographic information systems (GIS), geolocation measurement, image analysis, isotopic analysis, laboratory methods, luminescence dating, mathematical modeling, mathematical simulation, photography, real-time monitoring and reporting, remote sensing, risk assessment, statistical analysis, topological analysis, tree ring analysis
aquifers, domestic water use, drainage basins, droughts, estuaries, floodplains, floods, ground water, ground-water quality, industrial water use, irrigation, lakes, movement and recharge, runoff, saltwater intrusion, sediment transport, streamflow, surface water, surface water quality, thermal features, water budget, water properties, water quality, water supply and demand, water use
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